1) The application of science, math , engineering , art , and different fields of knowledge to create instruments and implementations deemed helpful by a society. This includes conceptualizations of know-how as a political phenomenon (Winner, Feenberg, Sclove), as a social exercise (Latour, Callon, Bijker and others in the space of science and know-how research), as a cultural phenomenon (Ihde, Borgmann), as a professional activity (engineering ethics, e.g., Davis), and as a cognitive exercise (Bunge, Vincenti).
As he phrased it, science concerns itself with what’s, whereas know-how issues itself with what is to be. A few years later, in his nicely-known e book The sciences of the factitious (1969), Herbert Simon emphasised this necessary distinction in virtually the identical words, stating that the scientist is worried with how things are but the engineer with how things ought to be. Though it is difficult to think about that earlier philosophers were blind to this distinction in orientation, their inclination, specifically within the tradition of logical empiricism, to view knowledge as a system of statements might have led to a conviction that in know-how no knowledge claims play a job that can’t even be found in science.
Enterprise leaders should have a …Read more